NEC Electronics introduced 22 new 16-bit All Flash microcontrollers (MCUs) for compact, low-power, battery-operated and sensor-enabled systems. Based on the company’s 16-bit 78K0R CPU core, the 78K0R/Kx3-L MCUs offer low power consumption to extend battery life, and additional on-chip integration to help reduce the size and cost of battery-driven and sensor-enabled systems. The lineup also offers high-performance on-chip oscillators, built-in circuits for sensor functions and extended system operating time. By optimizing the power management circuitry, the company asserts it has reduced standby power consumption in these new devices (when only the real-time clock functions are operational) by 60 percent, from an average of 2.4 µA to 1.0 µA. Likewise, power consumption at a clock speed of 10 MHz has been reduced by 10 percent, from 3.9 mA to 3.5 mA, and a clock speed of 20 MHz by 20 percent, from 8.2 m A to 6.5 mA, according to the company. This lowered power consumption contributes to high overall performance in end systems. The new MCUs are also said to offer the industry’s highest power/performance ratio, up to 1.5 mW per million instructions per second (Dhrystone 1.1). Three on-chip oscillator circuits are able to generate three separate operating frequencies, one at the clock speed of 1 MHz, another at the high-performance clock speed of 20 MHz and a third at the conventional clock speed of 8 MHz. An error rate of one percent at clock frequencies of 8 and 20 MHz eliminates the need to add an external oscillator for asynchronous data transfers, which demand high performance. The addition of one internal operational amplifier channel and two internal comparator channels, in lieu of externally mounted peripherals, allows a wide range of analog data to be measured at low cost. NEC Electronics’ 78K0R/Kx3-L MCUs also include a built-in dedicated booster circuit that reduces operating voltage during flash programming from 2.7 V to 1.8 V and extends operating time in the end system.