Although an increasing interest and use of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM) can be observed during the last decade, the standard 3-phase Induction Motor (IM) is still the most widely used electrical motor. The simplest way to start an IM is to connect the motor directly to the 3-phase main supply.
Medical electronic assemblies have unique requirements that set them apart from other types of electronic devices, such as consumer electronic products. Often, thermal management issues must be anticipated in the design, and assemblers must conform to certain quality standards such as ISO 13485.
Storage in Streaming Media: Advanced Solid State Storage SSDs Meet Performance and Reliability DemandsSeptember 29, 2009 12:24 pm | by Gary Drossel, Western Digital | Articles | Comments
The rapid adoption of streaming media in embedded applications has been largely driven by decreasing bandwidth costs. In 2005, it cost approximately $.89 per gigabyte (GB) delivered for up to 49,000 GB (47.8 terabytes) of bandwidth. Today, a major content provider could pay a meager $.05 per GB delivered for 500 terabytes of bandwidth.
Write-intensive applications require a mix of controller, storage media, and solid state storage management algorithms to achieve optimal endurance and lifespan, while read-intensive applications just go for the lowest cost per gigabyte. A key design metric for long product lifespan requires an understanding of the concept of write amplification and its crushing affects resulting in SSD failure when overlooked.
The input signal is v1; the first five harmonic-distortion products are v2 through v6; and the ADC electronic noise is vn. The reciprocal of THD + Noise, the signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio, or SINAD, is usually expressed in dB. If SINAD is substituted for the signal-to-quantizing-noise ratio, we can define an effective number of bits that a converter would have if its signal-to-quantizing-noise ratio were the same as its SINAD.
As applications engineers, we are constantly bombarded with a variety of questions about driving high-speed analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with differential inputs. Indeed, selecting the right ADC driver and configuration can be challenging. To make the design of robust ADC circuits somewhat easier, we’ve compiled a set of common “road hazards” and solutions.
As consumers clamor for smaller, sleeker and cheaper products, the pressure for embedded designers to find space and cost effective flash memory is higher than ever. Thankfully, serial flash memory devices provide the solution. Serial flash is a small, low-power NOR flash memory that uses SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) bus, sometimes called “four wire” serial bus, for sequential data access.
Recent advances in IGBT technology have given motor drive designers more options to consider for system development. Different specification conventions of various vendors complicate the design process further. Conventionally, system efficiency has been equated directly with VCEON. This metric is important for calculating the conduction losses of an IGBT but leaves out switching losses completely.
In the push to increase bandwidth, range and sensitivity in wide bandwidth systems, multi-antenna and multi-sensor arrays are becoming increasingly popular. With each antenna or sensor requiring its own signal chain, many analog-to-digital converter (ADC) suppliers are integrating multiple high-speed ADCs into a single IC design.
Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) is a measurement of the impedance of a transmission line using the reflected energy of a pulse sent down that transmission line. As a pulse is sent down a transmission line, it travels at the speed of light for the media it is in (typically, 60% to 80% of the speed of light in free space). As the pulse arrives at an impedance, mismatch energy is reflected back to the pulse source and arrives at a time
Hardware design in high performance applications such as networking, wireless/RF transmission, broadcast video and test and measurement is becoming increasingly complex as hardware designers grapple with the need to support a growing number of standards, protocols, and specifications within a single hardware design. A few examples illustrate this trend.
Modern microcontrollers (MCUs) have a large variety of peripherals and features that can do a lot to help a design’s power budget. It is important for an embedded designer to have complete knowledge of a device so that he can fully utilize the modes and peripherals available to reduce the power consumption of a design.
Comprehensive System Solutions Drive LED Backlight Units in TV Displays By Peter Arkadly and Tom Kapucija, Microsemi Corporation Although the LCD TV display market has not experienced as quick a conversion rate to LED backlighting as the laptop notebook segment
From planar HEXFETs to TrenchFETs and superjunction FETs, silicon power MOSFETs have continued to evolve for the last 30 years to satisfactorily serve numerous markets. In fact, during that period, there have been some two orders of magnitude improvement in performance. However, this silicon power device is rapidly approaching maturity
In general, high frequency operation allows the use of small-sized passive components in switch mode power supplies (SMPS), while it causes switching losses to increase in a hard switching mode. To reduce switching losses at high switching frequencies, many soft switching techniques have been developed. Among them, load resonant techniques and zero voltage transition techniques are widely used.
Dialog Semiconductor has had a something of a rollercoaster ride in recent times. Once part of the European semiconductor industry’s first order, it suffered many years of poor management and complacency that left it foundering. With the appointment of Jalal Bagherli, the firm is finally back on its feet. He has put together a ‘redeem team’ of executives to aid him in recapturing the glories of the past. ECN’s Mike Green gets some insight on how he is going about it.
Typically, industries use standards to improve product quality and enable component sharing across projects. In practice, such standards achieve wide acceptance since the synergistic effects provide significant benefits to the user community. The hardware and software industry is full of such standards, but there is an exception
Riding an elevator is typically a mundane exercise - you push a button, you wait, you get off at your floor. Few give any thought to the workings outside the metal box you’re riding. But behind the scenes a lot of technical communication takes place between the elevator car, the controller at the top of the elevator shaft, and the call button you’re patiently pushing in the lobby. Today that communication is typically conducted over high-grade RS-485 twisted pair serial cable.
Now that power via media-dependent interface (MDI) was added to the IEEE 802.3af Standard, data terminal equipment (DTE) can receive power over existing data transmission cables. The IEEE 802.3af Standard defines the requirements associated with providing and receiving power over the existing cabling. The power sourcing equipment (PSE) provides the power on the cable, and the powered device (PD) receives the power.
Semiconductor packaging has evolved from the through-hole packages of the 1970’s, through surface mount leaded packaging in the 1990’s to leadless package technologies of today such as quad/dual flat no leads (QFN/DFN), ball grid arrays (BGA) and chip scale packaging (CSP). It can be argued that it is semiconductor package innovations such as these that have allowed the industry to exploit the successive IC process shrinks and achieve product performances that were previously unobtainable.
In embedded DC-DC converters in industrial applications like test and measurement equipment or embedded computing, the system architecture can be quite complex, with many different output voltage and current, ripple, EMI and power sequencing requirements. This article will explore the impact of the choice of the converter power stages in DC-DC applications.
Stepper motor system designers today require more than simple drivers. They demand increased value such as reduced BOM costs with higher performance, which is helping stepper motors gain popularity in many applications historically reserved for DC motors.
In this paper we present two unique NVM solutions which can close two significant gaps in the embedded memory IC world. Today’s designers have a large choice of embedded non-volatile memories (NVM) verified in different production technologies. These memories can be divided into three groups
Previously analog-to-digital converters (ADC) at high input frequencies were limited in usefulness due to distortion and noise performance. Today, however, ADCs can provide nearly 9.5 bits of effective number of bits (ENOB) at radio frequencies (RF) of 1 GHz with signal bandwidths greater than 200MHz. Such performance at high frequencies eliminates a mixer stage, simplifying receiver design to improve overall system performance.
Many designs require a small amount of high-speed, instant-on programmable logic. These designs drive the thriving market for Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLDs). This article examines the definition of CPLDs, their applications, design methodologies and which factors to consider when selecting a CPLD.