Betz’ Law (culled from its namesake, Albert Betz) is a theory for flow machines. From this theory we derive the Betz Limit, that is, “the maximum possible energythat may be derived by means of an infinitely thin rotor from a fluid flowing at a certain speed.” In windmills, this equates to how much electricity can be harvested from the wind energy. Current technology allows turbines to capture a maximum of 59 percent of the energy in wind
This achievement not only speeds us forward in the development of real-world solid-state lighting, it demonstrates that LED-based tech is not the only game in town.Delivering a light yield of over 60 lumens/watt, an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) white light emitter from BASF and Osram Opto Semiconductors also meets international Energy Star SSL Standard with regard to color requirements.
What technology will have the biggest impact in 2009?
Wireless RF interference found in medical devices causes tainted results and misdiagnoses. Medical professionals and patients rely on these results to pursue the correct course of action for a given illness. There are several companies and collaborations looking into solutions of how to reduce and/or remove interference in the medical field. This month, we take a look at some of the causes of wireless interference and answers that are being worked on now in today’s medical devices, as well as future devices.
Programmers now have many tools that help reduce or eliminate problems. Unfortunately, they might not know these tools exist. "In 1998, the UK's Motor Industry Software Reliability Association (MISRA) published their standard for the C language to promote 'safe C' in the UK automotive industry," explained Chris Tapp, a field-applications engineer at LDRA. "The software industry has seen MISRA-C as a way to encourage good programming practice, focus on coding rules, and ensure well designed and tested safe code."
Semiconductor packaging has evolved from the through-hole packages of the 1970’s, through surface mount leaded packaging in the 1990’s to leadless package technologies of today such as quad/dual flat no leads (QFN/DFN), ball grid arrays (BGA) and chip scale packaging (CSP). It can be argued that it is semiconductor package innovations such as these that have allowed the industry to exploit the successive IC process shrinks and achieve product performances that were previously unobtainable.
As Halloween blurs into the great amorphous mass that is the combined orgy of Thanksgiving eating and Christmas Holiday shopping, we take the time to look at some of the things we’d like to see in our holiday gift baskets. Beyond the obligatory wishes for world peace and international understanding, there are some nice toys out there, too.
In embedded DC-DC converters in industrial applications like test and measurement equipment or embedded computing, the system architecture can be quite complex, with many different output voltage and current, ripple, EMI and power sequencing requirements. This article will explore the impact of the choice of the converter power stages in DC-DC applications.
As the holidays approach, what product or technology is on your wish list?
Compliance and compatibility are critical factors in the design of medical electronics equipment. The following are responses to questions posed by ECN regarding how vendors address certification issues and what types of testing are required.
Designers of portable medical devices face unique challenges. Their chosen field is known for regulatory scrutiny, protracted design and life cycles, and a need for unparalleled robustness in the finished product. In addition, design objectives that are common to all electronics can have special significance when it comes to medical devices. For example, low power consumption is always an objective for designers of portable electronics. Less power means a smaller and lighter battery, which enhances portability.
When we think of advanced technology vehicles, we usually conjure hybrid electric, fuel-cell, and solar cars. But the term, in fact, encompasses a wide-variety of off-the-wall designs including our most fundamental resource- air. Compressed air, as a technology, is nothing new. Seen in everything from power dusters to UPS’s, compressed air has a wide scope of application. But as an ATV variant, compressed air is relatively new (and unproven). French-based Motor Development International (MDI) has, since 1991, taken the lead in creating a viable air-powered vehicle.
Software-defined instrumentation is the new face of automated test. Scientists and engineers performing leading-edge research and designing custom measurement and control systems have used software-defined instruments, also known as virtual instruments, for more than 20 years. Software-defined instruments were critical for these often one-of-a-kind applications due to their unique system requirements.
A new technology aims to extract energy from that which covers 75% of the Earth— water. Michigan-based Vortex Hydro Energy is researching the natural motion of ocean currents; in particular, how currents interact with cylinders. Take offshore oil rigs, for example. When water impacts the cables that hold the platforms in place, it creates small vortices. When each vortex dissipates, it creates a vibration that poses a long-term risk to the rig’s structural integrity. But ocean engineer Michael Bernitsas, founder of Vortex Hydro, believes these vortices can be harnessed.
In many quality control operations, the human eye has been replaced by the unblinking lens of the digital camera. A machine vision (MV) system is intended for non-contact optical sensing and is ideal for use in quality control (QC) systems for quality assurance (QA). Industries exploiting MV include automotive component manufacturing, electronics assembly, semi-conductor production, food processing and pharmaceuticals manufacturing.
The world of computer technology has two incompatible characteristics. First, many computer systems have long lives. Second, students and many engineers pay attention to only the latest technologies and they believe old technologies have died out. The "yesterday's-fashion” phenomenon has applied to the Ada programming language, too. If engineers have heard of Ada at all, they may assume it is an old US Department of Defense technology that disappeared long ago.
The recent Energy Star controversy must inevitably be discussed in a broader context. To sum up current events: on June 2nd, the EPA violated Energy Policy Act (EPACT) 2005 by releasing a “technical amendment” (version 4.2) to their Energy Star solid state lighting criteria without consulting “interested parties” (i.e. industry).
Considering the military's exemption to RoHS regulation and its continued need for leaded parts, where do you think the reduced availability of leaded parts will make the greatest impact on the Mil/Aero market?
Touchscreen technology has become more prominent in recent years, especially in the consumer and kiosk markets. PDAs, ATM machines, supermarket check-outs, and Apple’s iPhone are among the most well-known uses of touchscreen technology. Some touchscreen technologies have found a place in applications where the more commercially known technologies (resistive and capacitive) are inadequate. This month, we review the different types of touchscreen technologies available for the consumer electronics industry, along with their pros and cons, their applications, and a look into the future.
Everyone is worried about the global economy, and many are afraid that the U.S. electronic design and manufacturing industry is facing dire straights. To those who worry, I say that the primary American electronic markets are amongst the most economically stable places in this crisis, and have some of the most innovative and creative engineers in the world.
Stepper motor system designers today require more than simple drivers. They demand increased value such as reduced BOM costs with higher performance, which is helping stepper motors gain popularity in many applications historically reserved for DC motors.
Internet mobility is growing today and is the way of the future. The challenge we are seeing with the current generation of Wireless Internet devices is revealed in the battle between Internet upload performance and battery life. End (cell phone) users’ expectations are rising to match the high upload speeds like those of the wired Internet -- without the burden of constantly recharging their batteries.
I'll begin this column with a recommendation: Start kits with a set of basic hand tools. When my son went to college, he had tools to hang pictures, connect TV sets and CD players, and tighten desks and shelves. As a result, he met most of the people on his co-ed floor. When our daughter went to college she got a tool kit, too. I suggest Phillips and flat-blade screwdrivers, pliers, diagonal cutters, wire strippers and a couple of adjustable wrenches. Later you could add a set of nut drivers, sockets wrenches and an inexpensive soldering iron.
Regular Efficiency Zone readers know that photovoltaics is a very inefficient technology. While the technology is environmentally-friendly, and the energy source (the sun) will be viable for billions of years, the conversion process (and viability) is undercut by a number of factors. These include shade, dirt, and panel-to-panel mismatch. In addition, detractors of the technology point to its high cost, but this is a socio-economic factor that won’t be solved by science alone. But scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have made a huge technological leap.
Registration is now open for Premier Farnell’s green event, “Designing for Energy Efficiency,” to be held at the online venue, Live EDGE EcoSphere, on October 15. This coincides with the design competition, “Live EDGE – Electronic Design for the Global Environment.” For the latter, entrants have until January 31, 2009 to submit environmental technologies, with the winner of the student and open/general competitions each receiving a cool $25,000. The online event, “Designing for Energy Efficiency,” will showcase green technologies from such manufacturers as National Semiconductor, Vishay Intertechnology, and Ohmite Manufacturing.